In Story of Your Life, by making Loise an omniscient, ongoing narrator, and by over utilizing Loise's husband as a plot device, while also making it too clear that the story is being told out of order, Chiang makes the story predictable by allowing the reader to have too many dots to connect. Conversely, in Arrival, by minimizing Loise's narration, and reducing her husband's role in the story, while also restricting the usage of flash-forwards, Dennis Villeneuve was able to redirect the viewers' attention, use their preconceived notions against them, and in turn, leave the viewer with no choice but to affirm the point about free will that was made at the film's conclusion. This point being that if Loise is meant to represent the viewer, then similar to how Loise's preconceptions about the nature of time caused her to be unable to perceive the alien's language correctly, the viewer's preconceptions about the nature of movies, caused them to be unable to perceive the movie correctly. And like Loise's gaining of the ability to choose the consequences of her actions by learning to view the alien language correctly, the viewer gains the ability to choose how they see movies, by learning to view the movie correctly. Furthermore, similar to how a movie must subvert its viewer's expectations with a twist, to be enjoyable, in modern universities, for a student to obtain an "A" on an essay, they must subvert their teacher's expectations for that essay, before it can be possible for them to exceed those expectations. But, to do so, a student can't simply take an approach akin to Chiang's in Story of Your Life, and make everything meaningful to be included in the writings conclusion, visible in its opening paragraph. No, for a student to obtain an "A" at universities such as Harvard, or Stanford, a student must be ambitious and be willing to propel the heft of their statements beyond the realms of their essays. To this end, an approach similar to Dennis Villeneuve's with Arrival, would be more fitting. For such approach, a student would need to minimize the omniscient nature of their narrative framing, reduce their portrayal of their linguistic husbandry, and restrict any obvious usage of foreshadowing to their writings' conclusion. Furthermore, I'd argue that a student that could complete such a task, has done more than enough to simply convince a teacher to reward them with an "A," but instead, has made them as Loise prior to learning the heptapod language, and given them no choice, but to do so.